## Introduction to Data Interpretation

#### Data Interpretation

Direction: Study the bar-graph given below which shows the per cent distribution of total expenditures of a company under various expenses and answer the questions.

1. The expenditure on the interest on loans is more than the expenditure on transport by

1. As per the given bar graph ,
Percentage expenditure on interest on loans = 17.5%
Percentage expenditure on transport = 12.5%
Change in expenditure = 17.5 - 12.5 = 5

 ∴ Required percent = 5 × 100 12.5

##### Correct Option: C

As per the given bar graph ,
Percentage expenditure on interest on loans = 17.5%
Percentage expenditure on transport = 12.5%
Change in expenditure = 17.5 - 12.5 = 5

 ∴ Required percent = 5 × 100 12.5

 Required percent = 500 = 40% 12.5

Direction: Study the following bar-diagram carefully and answer the questions. The bar graph given below shows the foreign exchange reserves of a country (in million US \$) from 1991-1992 to 1998 - 1999.

1. Ratio of the sum of foreign exchange reserves during the years 1991-92, 1992-93, 1993-94 to that during the years 1995-96, 1996-97, 1997-98 is

1. According to given bar graph , we have
Sum of foreign exchange reserves during the years 1991-92, 1992-93, 1993-94 = 2640 + 3720 + 2520 = 8880
Sum of foreign exchange reserves during the years 1995-96, 1996-97, 1997-98 = 3120 + 4320 + 5040 = 12480
Required ratio = Sum of foreign exchange reserves during the years 1991-92, 1992-93, 1993-94 : Sum of foreign exchange reserves during the years 1995-96, 1996-97, 1997-98

##### Correct Option: C

According to given bar graph , we have
Sum of foreign exchange reserves during the years 1991-92, 1992-93, 1993-94 = 2640 + 3720 + 2520 = 8880
Sum of foreign exchange reserves during the years 1995-96, 1996-97, 1997-98 = 3120 + 4320 + 5040 = 12480
Required ratio = Sum of foreign exchange reserves during the years 1991-92, 1992-93, 1993-94 : Sum of foreign exchange reserves during the years 1995-96, 1996-97, 1997-98
∴ Required ratio = 8880 : 12480 = 37 : 52

1. The percentage increase in the foreign exchange reserves in 1997-98 over 1993-94 is

1. As per the given bar graph ,
The foreign exchange reserves in 1997-98 = 5040 million
The foreign exchange reserves in 1993-94 = 2520 million
Total change = 5040 - 2520

 Percentage increase = Total change × 100 The foreign exchange reserves in 1993-94

##### Correct Option: A

As per the given bar graph ,
The foreign exchange reserves in 1997-98 = 5040 million
The foreign exchange reserves in 1993-94 = 2520 million
Total change = 5040 - 2520

 Percentage increase = Total change × 100 The foreign exchange reserves in 1993-94

 Percentage increase = 2520 × 100 = 100% 2520

1. The foreign exchange reserves in 1996-97 were approximately what percent of the average foreign exchange reserves over the period under review?

1. According to given bar graph , we have
The foreign exchange reserves in 1996-97 = 4320 million
Average foreign exchange reserves in all given years = 3480 million

 Required percent = The foreign exchange reserves in 1996-97 × 100 Average foreign exchange reserves in all given years

##### Correct Option: D

According to given bar graph , we have
The foreign exchange reserves in 1996-97 = 4320 million
Average foreign exchange reserves in all given years = 3480 million

 Required percent = The foreign exchange reserves in 1996-97 × 100 Average foreign exchange reserves in all given years

 Required percent = 4320 × 100 ≈ 124% 3480

1. The ratio of the number of years, in which the foreign exchange reserves are above the average reserves, to those in which the reserves are below the average reserves is

1. On the basis of given graph in question ,
Sum of foreign exchange reserve = 2640 + 3720 + 2520 + 3360 + 3120 + 4320 + 5040 + 3120
Number of years = 8

 Average foreign exchange reserve = (2640 + 3720 + 2520 + 3360 + 3120 + 4320 + 5040 + 3120) million dollar 8

 Average foreign exchange reserve = 27840 = 3480 million dollar 8

##### Correct Option: C

On the basis of given graph in question ,
Sum of foreign exchange reserve = 2640 + 3720 + 2520 + 3360 + 3120 + 4320 + 5040 + 3120
Number of years = 8

 Average foreign exchange reserve = (2640 + 3720 + 2520 + 3360 + 3120 + 4320 + 5040 + 3120) million dollar 8

 Average foreign exchange reserve = 27840 = 3480 million dollar 8

Number of years, in which the foreign exchange reserves above average value = 3
Number of years, in which the foreign exchange reserves below average value = 5
Required ratio = Number of years, in which the foreign exchange reserves above average value : Number of years, in which the foreign exchange reserves below average value
∴ Required ratio = 3 : 5