Direction: You have two brief passages with five questions following each passage. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
Power and possession have been central pursuits of modern civilisation for a long time. They blocked out or distorted other features of the western renaissance (revival) which promised so much for humanity. What people have been and are still being taught to prize are money, success, control over the lives of others, acquisition of more and more objects. Modern social, political, and economic systems, whether capitalist, fascist or communist, reject in their working the basic principle that the free and creative unfoldment of every man, woman and child is the true measure of the worth of any society. Such unfoldment requires understanding and imagination, integrity and compassion, cooperation among people and harmony between the human species and the rest of nature. Acquisitiveness and the pursuit of power have made the modern man an aggressor against everything that is non-human; an exploiter and oppressor of those who are poor, meek and unorganised; a pathological type which hates and distrusts the world and suffers from both acute loneliness and false pride.
SOME IMPORTANT WORDS
pursuits : the act of looking for or trying to find something.
distorted : changed.
to prize : to value highly.
acquisition : the act of getting/acquiring something
capitalist : a person who owns or controls a lot of wealth and uses it to produce more wealth.
fascist : a person who supports central government that does not allow any opposition.
communist : a person who believes that all are treated equally.
unfoldment : known to all people.
Compassion :a strong feeling of sympathy for people who are suffering and a desire to help them.
integrity : the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles.
acquisitiveness : wanting very much to buy or get new possessions.
harmony : a state of peaceful existence and agreement
aggressor : a person, country, etc.
that attacks first oppressor : a person/group that treat somebody in a cruel and unfair way
pathological : not reasonable/sensible/controllable
acute : very serious/severe false
pride : a high opinion of oneself/one’s abilities, not based on real achievement/success
Direction: You have two brief passages with 5 questions following each passage. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
Among Nature’s most intriguing phenomena are the partnerships formed by any different species. The name used for these relationships, Symbiosis, comes from Greek meaning "living together". Not all symbiotic relationships are the same. There are some called commensal relationships, in which one partner gains a benefit while the other gains little or none but is not harmed. One example is the relationship between two types of fish – remoras and sharks. The remora, which is long and often striped, attaches itself to a shark (sometimes to another type of fish or a whale), using a sucker on its head. When the shark makes a kill, the hitchhiker briefly detaches itself to feed on the scraps. Another type of symbiotic relationship is parasitism, in which one partner benefits at the expense of others. Ticks and tapeworms are among familiar parasites. The third type of symbiotic relationship, called mutualism, is a true partnership in which both partners benefit. The relationship may be limited as when zebras and wildbeast graze together on the vast African grasslands. Each species can survive on its own, but together their chances of detecting predators are improved because each contributes a specially keen sense. (Zebras have the better eyesight; wildbeast, hearing and sense of smell). In a few cases partners are so interdependent that one cannot survive without the other. Most mutualistic relationships probably lie somewhere in betwen
SOME IMPORTANT WORDS
intriguing : very interesting because of being unusual or not having an obvious answer.
commensal : living on another animal/plant and getting food from the situation, but doing no harm. hitch
hiker : taking lifts from others (here, remora is the hitch hiker).
parasitism : living on another animal plant and getting its food from it.
ticks : small insects that bite humans and animals and suck their blood.
mutualism : sharing by two or more people.
predators : animals that kill and eat other animals.
symbiosis : a relationship of mutual benefit/dependence