Direction: Read the following passages carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
For months the old tanker, African Queen , lay turned over on her side, stuck fast in the sands off the coast of Maryland. She had run aground so badly that her owners had decided to leave her to her fate. It was considered impossible to refloat her and the ship began to rust and sink deeper and deeper into the sands. Men frequently came out in small boats and removed any parts that could be sold-until two men decided to attempt the impossible : to float the African Queen once more. Both men were engineers and had no experience of ships so that few people thought they could succeed. The men began by studying the exact state of the African Queen and came to the conclusion that she would float again if air was pumped into the tanks which were now full of sea-water. A diver was sent down to examine the underside of the ship. In the cold, dark water he found an enormous hole in her side which had been torn when the ship ran aground. It was plain that nothing could be done until the hole was repaired. As no single sheet of steel would cover it, the men were obliged to order a great number of sheets which had to be joined together. For several weeks divers worked continually to close the hole. At times, the sea was so rough that it was difficult to go down; and on more than one occasion, they had to contend with sharks. At last the hole was covered and the men began to pump the sea-water out of the ship’s tanks. It seemed as if they were bound to succeed, for when the tanks were full of air, the African Queen began to stir in the water. The men could not understand why she still would not float until they discovered that her rudder was embedded in mud. Huge cranes were brought to haul the sunken rudder out and the ship was again afloat. By this time, the men were almost exhausted. They had worked ceaselessly for three months to save the African Queen and had succeeded when everyone thought they would fail. Now they stood on the bridge of the ship, tired but proud, as tugs brought the African Queen into the harbour.
SOME IMPORTANT WORDS
contended : to have to deal with a problem or with a difficult situation or person.
embedded : fixed firmly
aground : touching the ground in shallow water and unable to move (ship)
refloat : to make a boat/ship float again
afloat : floating on water ceaselessly : without stopping
tugs : small powerful boats for pulling ships
Direction: You have two brief passages with five questions following each passage. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
The Indians as a group are not cohesive. There is a lack of ‘coordination’ among individuals, groups, institutions and states. This lack of ‘coordination’ may be traced to selfishness, lack of trust and the inability to find joy in working together as a team for a common goal. This leads to divisiveness, asking for criticism, with the result images are tarnished and the main purpose is defeated. This phenomenon is visible among the bureaucrats, the politicians, the intellectuals, the business community and the sports fraternity, all those who matter and who give a poor account of themselves as a group despite individual brilliance. This contrast in human behaviour can perhaps be traced to age-old beliefs, religious tolerance, poverty and the diversity in day-to-day living conditions.
SOME IMPORTANT WORDS
cohesive : forming a united whole.
divisiveness : splitting into groups that disagree with or oppose one another.
coordination : balanced and effective interaction of movement, actions, etc
criticism : the act of expressing disapproval tarnished : to spoil the good opinion people have of somebody/something
bureaucrats : an official working in an organisation/a government department
fraternity : a group of people sharing the same professio, interests/beliefs
despite :inspite of
contrast : a difference between two/more people/ things