Direction: A passage is given with 5 questions following it. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
Settled life and cultivation gave man leisure; he had no longer to always think of getting food. During spare time he could make stone tools, hoes or pots and weave cloth. Some people spared from producing their own food could even devote themselves to other activities all the time. This resulted in a division of labour. The division of labour made it possible for various groups to specialize, that is, to acquire greater skill and learn better techniques in doing one kind of work. The settled community life needed rules to regulate the behaviour of the members of the community. It is not possible to know exactly how regulations were established. It appears that the decisions regarding the community were taken by the people as a whole, or by a council of elders, as is in the practice in tribal societies. There were perhaps no kings or any organized government. Most likely, there were chiefs elected by the community for their qualities of leadership. But, these chiefs could not pass their positions on to their sons and they enjoyed few special privileges. Archaeological excavations have not revealed anything which would indicate the prevalence of a higher status for some members of the community. This is also supported by the study of life in many tribes in modern times. Thus, social inequalities do not seem to have emerged even in Neolithic times.
Direction: A passage is given with 5 questions following it. Read the passage carefully and choose thebest answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
Two men were once walking along a forest path, talking of courage and loyalty. The bigger one, who had a gun, was boasting of his own bravery and fidelity, when suddenly a large bear came from behind a rock close in front of them, and stood in their way growling angrily. The boaster fled to the nearest tree, dropped his gun, and climbed to a safe place without thinking of his poor friend. The latter flung himself upon his face as though dead. The bear smelt his body, turned him over, licked his face, and supposing him to be dead, went on its way leaving him unhurt. The other man came down from the tree, and going to his friend said “Well, what secrets did he whisper so quietly in your ear?”. To which the little man, who owed his life to his own presence of mind and not to the boasted bravery and fidelity of his companion, replied, “why, he said, ‘put not your trust in braggarts,’ and I shall take his advice.”
MEANINGS OF DIFFICULT WORDS/PHRASES
(1) fidelity (N.) : the quality of being faithful
(2) fled (V.) : run away quickly
(3) presence of mind (Phr.) : ability to say/do the right thing in an emergency
(4) braggarts (N.) : a very boastful and talkative person