Direction: You have passages with 5 questions in each passage. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
The World Health Organisation is briefly called W.H.O. It is a specialised agency of the United Nations and was established in 1948. International health workers can be seen working in all kinds of surroundings: in deserts, jungles, mountains, coconut groves, and rice fields. They help the sick to attain health and the healthy to maintain their health. This global health team assists the local health workers in stopping the spread of what are called communicable diseases, like cholera. These diseases can spread from one country to another and so can be a threat to world health. W.H.O. assists different national health authorities not only in controlling diseases but also in preventing them altogether. Total prevention of diseases is possible in a number of ways. Everyone knows how people, particularly children, are vaccinated against one disease or another. Similarly, most people are familiar with the spraying of houses with poisonous substances which kill disease-carrying insects.
Direction: You have a passage with 10 questions. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
CYBER BOGEYS The cyber-world is ultimately ungovernable. This is alarming as well as convenient; sometimes, convenient because alarming. Some Indian politicians use this to great advantage. When there is an obvious failure in governance during a crisis they deflect attention from their own incompetence towards the ungovernable. So, having failed to prevent nervous citizens from fleeing their cities of work by assuring them of proper protection, some national leaders are now busy trying to prove to one another, and to panicprone Indians, that a mischievous neighbour has been using the internet and social networking sites to spread dangerous rumours. And the Centre’s automatic reaction is to start blocking these sites and begin elaborate and potentially endless negotiations with Google, Twitter and Facebook about access to information. If this is the official idea of prompt action at a time of crisis among communities, then Indians have more reason to fear their protectors than the nebulous mischief-makers of the cyber-world. Wasting time gathering proof, blocking vaguely suspicious websites, hurling accusations across the border and worrying about bilateral relations are ways of keeping busy with inessentials because one does not quite know what to do about the essentials of a difficult situation. Besides, only a fifth of the 245 websites blocked by the Centre mention the people of the Northeast or the violence in Assam. And if a few morphed images and spurious texts can unsettle an entire nation, then there is something deeply wrong with the nation and with how it is being governed. This is what its leaders should be addressing immediately, rather than making a wrongheaded display of their powers of censorship. It is just as absurd, and part of the same syndrome to try to ban Twitter accounts that parody despatches from the Prime Minister’s Office. To describe such forms of humour and dissent as “misrepresenting” the PMO — as if Twitterers would take these parodies for genuine despatches from the PMO — makes the PMO look more ridiculous than its parodists manage to. With the precedent for such action set recently by the chief minister of West Bengal, this is yet another proof that what Bengal thinks today India will think tomorrow. Using the cyber-world for flexing the wrong muscles is essentially not funny. It might even prove to be quite dangerously distracting.
SOME IMPORTANT WORDS
panic-prone : used for suffering from fear, anxiety, etc.
nebulous : not clear; vague. hurling : shouting accusations : statements saying that you think a person is guilty of doing something wrong, especially of committing a crime. inessentials : unnecessary talks morphed : changed smoothly from one image to another.
spurious : false; fake syndrome : a set of opinions or a way of behaving that is typical of a particular type of person, attitude or social problem. parody : a piece of writing that copies the style of somebody/something in order to be amusing. dissent : disagreement of opinions flexing : bending, moving, stretching, contracting, etc.
in order to prepare for a physical activity wrong-headed : having or showing bad judgement sane : sensible and reasonable