Direction: In the following questions, you have two passages with 5 questions in each passage. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
A dolphin is an aquatic mammal. Dolphins are extremely intelligent and sociable animals and have their own way to communicate with each other using special sounds. Although they are often mistaken for fish, dolphins are actually mammals. They are members of the Cetacea (pronounced set-ay-shia) family, which also contains whales and porpoises. One way of telling the difference between a cetacean and a fish is by looking at their tails. You can tell a cetacean because their tail fins (called flukes) are horizontal and move up and down. Fish have vertical tails which move from side to side. A dolphin’s body is designed to help them move quickly and easily through water. The dolphin’s fluke propels it through the water. On its back is a curved dorsal fin and on each side of the dolphin is a pectoral fin. The bump on a dolphins head is known as the melon. They trap their prey by using their teeth. Dolphins use a type of sonar to detect where objects are around them. This is called echolocation. Echolocation works when a dolphin bounces a high pitched sound off an object and then listens for the echo to come back. It is a very useful way for dolphins to find food and navigate. Dolphins communicate with each other through clicks, squeaks and whistles. They use these special sounds to greet each other and to indicate if they are in distress. Dolphins live in the sea, but they can’t breathe under water! They breathe through a blowhole and have to come up for air every 15 minutes.
Direction: In the following passage some of the words have been left out. Read the passage carefully and choose the correct answer to each question out of the four alternatives and fill in the blanks.
The Dalmatian of the sole surviving semi- speaker, Tuone Udaina, was surveyed in the late 1870s and again towards the end of his life in the late 1890s. These fairly extensive records curiously suggest that a systematic (......) change took place in those two decades such that by the 1890s the distinction between present and imperfect indicative had largely been neutralized (a development unique among Romance languages) in favour of the imperfect tense is forms. I argue that the data is authentic and that the change, whether it occurred just in Udaina’s head or was already underway in the last years of Dalmatian as a spoken language, is purely ‘internal’ and not (......) by contact with other languages. I explore its internal mechanisms and show that what is involved is a kind of analogical formmeaning levelling whose signatum is an ‘empty’ element of (......) structure. Reinforcement of this essentially ‘nonsensical’ (......) of paradigmatic structure constitutes further evidence for my general view that intraparadigmatic coherence may be no less important than extramorphological transparency. It also suggests that such a development can as easily (......) in a dying language as anyhwere else.(......)
SOME IMPORTANT WORDS
(1) Dalmatian (N.) : a Romance language of Dalmatia (Australian Province) (extinct since 19th century)
(2) signatum (N.) : that which is indicated/designated by something; signified
(3) paradigmatic (Adj.) : that is a typical example/ pattern of something
(4) coherence (N.) : the situation in which all the parts of something fit together well
(5) morpho logical (Adj.) : connected with the forms of words
(6) aberration (N.) : a fact, an action/a way of behaving that is not usual, and that may be unacceptable
(7) oddity (N.) : the quality of being strange/unusual