Medieval history miscellaneous


  1. Which area of India was known as Avantika in ancient times ?









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    Ujjain (Avanti, Avantikapuri), is an ancient city of Malwa region in central India, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River, today part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. Avanti with its capital at Ujjaini, is mentioned in Buddhist literature as one of the four great powers along with Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha.

    Correct Option: D

    Ujjain (Avanti, Avantikapuri), is an ancient city of Malwa region in central India, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River, today part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. Avanti with its capital at Ujjaini, is mentioned in Buddhist literature as one of the four great powers along with Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha.


  1. The home of Gargi, Maitrey, and Kapila was at










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    The name ‘Mithila‘ goes back to Puranic times. It occurs in the Mahabharata and in Pali literature. According to the Puranic tradition the name has been derived from that of Mithi (son of Nimi) King of Ayodhya and grandson of Manu who founded a kingdom which was called Mithila after him. It is associated with Valmiki, Ashtavakra, Yajnavalkya, Udayana, Mahavira, Kanada, Jaimini and Kapila as well as the women philosophers, such as, Gargi, Maitreyi, Bharati and Katyayani. After the era of the Ramayana it is said that the three seats of culture in Vedic period - Kosala, Kasi and Videha - merged to form the Vajjians confederacy and the centre of political gravity shifted from Mithila to Vaishali.

    Correct Option: D

    The name ‘Mithila‘ goes back to Puranic times. It occurs in the Mahabharata and in Pali literature. According to the Puranic tradition the name has been derived from that of Mithi (son of Nimi) King of Ayodhya and grandson of Manu who founded a kingdom which was called Mithila after him. It is associated with Valmiki, Ashtavakra, Yajnavalkya, Udayana, Mahavira, Kanada, Jaimini and Kapila as well as the women philosophers, such as, Gargi, Maitreyi, Bharati and Katyayani. After the era of the Ramayana it is said that the three seats of culture in Vedic period - Kosala, Kasi and Videha - merged to form the Vajjians confederacy and the centre of political gravity shifted from Mithila to Vaishali.



  1. Which among the following chronology is correct regarding four ‘samvatas’ ?











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    Samvat is any of the various Hindu calendars. In India, there are several calendars in use. The Saka Samvat is associated with 78 A.D; gupta Samvat with 320 A.D; and Hijri Samvat with 622 A.D. The first year of Hijri era was the Islamic year beginning in AD 622 during which the emigration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra, occurred. The Gregorian calendar, also called the Western calendar and the Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February, 1582.

    Correct Option: E

    Samvat is any of the various Hindu calendars. In India, there are several calendars in use. The Saka Samvat is associated with 78 A.D; gupta Samvat with 320 A.D; and Hijri Samvat with 622 A.D. The first year of Hijri era was the Islamic year beginning in AD 622 during which the emigration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra, occurred. The Gregorian calendar, also called the Western calendar and the Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February, 1582.


  1. The Grand Trunk Road was built during the reign of which ruler?









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    The Sadak-e-Azam ('great road') is universally recognized as having been the precursor of the Grand Trunk Road. The road was initially built by Sher Shah to connect Agra, his capital, with Sasaram, his hometown.

    Correct Option: A

    The Sadak-e-Azam ('great road') is universally recognized as having been the precursor of the Grand Trunk Road. The road was initially built by Sher Shah to connect Agra, his capital, with Sasaram, his hometown.



  1. The guerilla warfare was pioneered by









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    One of the earliest examples of guerrilla warfare, is Shivaji, the Maratha king. He fought several battles in which he used guerrilla tactics to overcome superior forces. He innovated rules of military engagement, pioneering the "Shiva sutra" or ganimi kava (guerrilla tactics), which leveraged strategic factors like geography, speed, surprise and focused pinpoint attacks to defeat his larger and more powerful enemies.

    Correct Option: C

    One of the earliest examples of guerrilla warfare, is Shivaji, the Maratha king. He fought several battles in which he used guerrilla tactics to overcome superior forces. He innovated rules of military engagement, pioneering the "Shiva sutra" or ganimi kava (guerrilla tactics), which leveraged strategic factors like geography, speed, surprise and focused pinpoint attacks to defeat his larger and more powerful enemies.