## Syllogism

#### Syllogism

Direction: One/two statements are given followed by four conclusions I, II, III and IV. You have to consider the two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follow from the given statement.

1. Statements:
(A) Some cats are dogs.
(B) Some dogs are stones.
Conclusions:
I. No cat is stone.
II. All dogs are stones.
III. Some stones are cats.
IV. No dog is cat.

1. Both the Premises are Particular Affirmative (I-type).
No Conclusion follows from the two Particular Premises.

##### Correct Option: D

Both the Premises are Particular Affirmative (I-type).
No Conclusion follows from the two Particular Premises.
Conclusions I and III form Complementary Pair. Therefore, either Conclusion I or III follows. Considering the given Options we can select option (4) as the answer.

Direction: In the following question, two statements are given followed by two Inferences I and II. You have to consider the two statements to be true, even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You are to decide which of the given conclusions can definitely be drawn from the given statements. Indicate your answer.

1. Statements:
A. All girls are proud.
B. All proud will be humiliated one day.
Inferences:
I. All girls will be humiliated one day.
II. Some girls will be humiliated one day.

1. Both the Premises are Universal Affirmative (A-type).
Both the Premises are already aligned.

##### Correct Option: C

Both the Premises are Universal Affirmative (A-type).
Both the Premises are already aligned.
All girls are proud ↔ All proud will be humiliated one day
We know that,
A + A ⇒ A – type Conclusion Therefore, our derived Conclusion would be:
“All girls will be humiliated one day”.
Conclusion II is the converse of the derived Conclusion. Thus, both the Conclusions follow.

Direction: In the following question, two statements P and Q are given followed by four conclusions I, II, III and IV. You have to consider the two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follow the given statements.

1. Statements:
P. All men are women.
Q. All women are crazy.
Conclusions:
I. All men are crazy.
II. All the crazy are men.
III. Some of the crazy are men.
IV. Some of the crazy are women.

1. Both the Premises are Universal Affirmative (A-type).
All men are women. ↔ All women are crazy.

##### Correct Option: C

Both the Premises are Universal Affirmative (A-type).
All men are women. ↔ All women are crazy.
A + A ⇒ A – type of Conclusion
“All men are crazy”.
This is Conclusion I. Conclusion III is the Converse of it.
Conclusion IV is the Converse of Statement Q.

Direction: In the following questions, two statements are given followed by two conclusions I and II. You have to consider the two statements to be true, even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You are to decide which of the given conclusions can definitely be drawn from the given statements. Indicate your answer.

1. Statements:
All Americans are English speaking.
No Eskimos are English speaking.
Conclusions:
I. No Eskimos are Americans.
II. No English-speakers are Eskimos.

1. We can align the premises by converting the second premise.
All Americans are English speaking. ↔ No English speakers are Eskimos.

##### Correct Option: D

We can align the premises by converting the second premise.
All Americans are English speaking. ↔ No English speakers are Eskimos.
We know that,
A + E → E type conclusion Thus, our derived conclusion would be:
“No Americans are Eskimos.”
Conclusion I is the converse of the derived conclusion.
Conclusion II is the converse of second premise.

Direction: One/two statement(s) is/are given followed by two conclusions, I and II. You have to consider the statement(s) to be true, even if it/they seem(s) to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follow(s) from the given statement(s).

1. Statements:
(a) All frogs are tortoises.
(b) No tortoise is a crocodile.
Conclusions:
I. No crocodile is a frog.
II. No frog is a crocodile.

1. First Premise is Universal Affirmative (A-type).
Second Premise is Universal Negative (E-type).

##### Correct Option: C

First Premise is Universal Affirmative (A-type).
Second Premise is Universal Negative (E-type).
All frogs are tortoises. ↔ No tortoise is a crocodile.
A + E ⇒ E-type of Conclusion “No frog is a crocodile”.
This is Conclusion II.
Conclusion I is Converse of this Conclusion.