## Syllogism

#### Syllogism

Direction: In each of the following questions, two statements are given followed by two/four conclusions I, II III and IV. You have to consider the two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follow from the given statements.

1. Statements:
(a) Some buses are four wheelers.
(b) All four wheelers are vans.
Conclusions:
I. Some vans are buses.
II. Some buses are vans.

1. Some buses are four-wheelers. ↔ All four-wheelers are vans.

##### Correct Option: B

Some buses are four-wheelers. ↔ All four-wheelers are vans.
I + A ⇒ I-type of Conclusion. “Some buses are vans”.
This is Conclusion II.
Conclusion I is Converse of this Conclusion.

Direction: Consider the given statements to be true and decide which of the given Conclusions/assumptions can definitely be drawn from the given statements.

1. Statements:
1. All cycles are ducks.
2. All ducks are swans.
Conclusions:
I. All swans are cycles.
II. Some swans are cycles.

1. Both the Premises are Universal Affirmative (A–type).
All cycles are ducks. ↔ All ducks are swans.

##### Correct Option: B

Both the Premises are Universal Affirmative (A–type).
All cycles are ducks. ↔ All ducks are swans.
A + A ⇒ A–type of Conclusion “All cycles are swans.”
Conclusion II is the Converse of it.

Direction: Three statements are given followed by four conclusions I, II, III and IV. You have to consider the statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follow from the given statements.

1. Statements:
Some books are novels.
All novels are magazines. Some magazines are journals.
Conclusions:
I. Some novels are journals.
II. Some books are magazines.
III. All books are magazines.
IV. No novel is a journal.

1. First and third Premises are Particular Affirmative (I-type).
Second Premise is Universal Affirmative (A-type).
Some books are novels. ↔ All novels are magazines.

##### Correct Option: D

First and third Premises are Particular Affirmative (I-type).
Second Premise is Universal Affirmative (A-type).
Some books are novels. ↔ All novels are magazines.
I + A ⇒ I-type of Conclusion. “Some books are magazines.”
It is Conclusion II.
Conclusions I and IV form Complementary Pair. Therefore, either Conclusion I or IV follows.

Direction: Two statements are given followed by four conclusions I, II, III and IV. You have to consider the statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You are to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follow from the given statements. Indicate your answer.

1. Statements:
(a) Blue is Black and some Black is red.
(b) All red is Green but not Yellow
Conclusions:
I. Some Blue is Green.
II. No Black is Yellow.
III. Some Black is not Yellow.
IV. No Black is Green.

1. Draw a figure and solve the question.
Some blue is red and All red is green. Therefore, some blue is green.

##### Correct Option: A

Some blue is red and All red is green. Therefore, some blue is green.
Clearly, no black is yellow. Thus, only Conclusions I and II follow.

Direction: In each of the following questions two/three statements are given followed by two/four conclusions I, II, III and IV. You have to consider the statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follow from the given statements.

1. Statements:
(a) No flower is a pot.
(b) No pot is a garden.
Conclusions:
I. No flower is a garden.
II. All gardens are pots.

1. Both the Premises are Universal Negative (E - type).

##### Correct Option: D

Both the Premises are Universal Negative (E - type).
No Conclusion follows from the two negative Premises.