## Syllogism

#### Syllogism

Direction: Two statements are given, each followed by two Conclusions/Assumptions I and II. You have to consider the statement to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions/assumptions, if any, follows from the given statements.

1. Statements:
(i) Some papers are pens.
(ii) All the pencils are pens.
Conclusions:
I. Some pens are pencils.
II. Some pens are papers.

1. First Premise is the Particular Affirmative (I-type).
Second Premise is the Universal Affirmative (A-type).
All the pencils are pens. ↔ Some pens are papers.

##### Correct Option: C

First Premise is the Particular Affirmative (I-type).
Second Premise is the Universal Affirmative (A-type).
All the pencils are pens. ↔ Some pens are papers.
A + I ⇒ No Conclusion
Conclusion I is the Converse of the second Premise.
Conclusion II is the Converse of the first Premise.

Direction: Consider the given statements to be true and decide which of the given conclusions/assumptions can definitely be drawn from the given statements.

1. Statements:
1. Some teachers are followers.
2. Some followers are famous.
Conclusions:
I. Some teachers are famous.
II. Some followers are teachers.

1. Both the Premises are Particular Affirmative (I-type).

##### Correct Option: B

Both the Premises are Particular Affirmative (I-type).
No Conclusion follows from the two Particular Premises.
Conclusion II is the Converse of the first Premise.

Direction: Consider the given statements to be true and decide which of the given conclusions/assumptions can definitely be drawn from the given statements.

1. Statements:
1. All trees are leaves.
2. Some fruits are leaves.
Conclusions:
I. Some fruits are trees.
II. Some leaves are trees.

1. First Premise is Universal Affirmative (A-type).
Second Premise is Particular Affirmative (I-type).
All trees are leaves. ↔ Some leaves are fruits.

##### Correct Option: B

First Premise is Universal Affirmative (A-type).
Second Premise is Particular Affirmative (I-type).
All trees are leaves. ↔ Some leaves are fruits.
A + I ⇒ No Conclusion
Conclusion II is Converse of the first Premise.

1. Select the alternative inference which is most appropriate.
“All professors are learned; learned people are always gentle.”
Inference: All professors are gentle persons.

1. All professors are learned and learned people are always gentle.

##### Correct Option: A

All professors are learned and learned people are always gentle. So, all professors are gentle persons. It means the Inference is true.

Direction: In each of the question below are three statements following by three conclusions numbered I, II and III. You have to take the three given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusion logically follows from the two statements disregarding commonly known fact.

1. Statement:
Some books are papers. Some papers are desks. All desks are chairs.
Conclusions:
I. Some books are desks.
II. Some papers are chairs.
III. Some books are chairs.

1. I-type statements can't be combined.

##### Correct Option: A

I-type statements can't be combined.