## Syllogism

#### Syllogism

Direction: In each of the following questions, two statements are given followed by two/four conclusions I, II, III and IV. You have to consider the two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follow from the given statements.

1. Statements:
(a) No girl is a parrot.
(b) Sowmya is a girl.
Conclusions:
I. Sowmya is not a parrot.
II. All girls are not Sowmya.

1. First Premise is Universal Negative (E-type).
Second Premise is Universal Affirmative (A-type).
Sowmya is a girl.↔ No girl is a parrot.

##### Correct Option: A

First Premise is Universal Negative (E-type).
Second Premise is Universal Affirmative (A-type).
Sowmya is a girl.↔ No girl is a parrot.
A + E ⇒ E-type of Conclusion. “Sowmya is not a parrot.”
This is Conclusion I.

Direction: In each of the following questions, two statements are given followed by two/four conclusions I, II, III and IV. You have to consider the two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follow from the given statements.

1. Statements:
(a) All pens are papers.
(b) No eraser is a paper.
Conclusions:
I. No eraser is a pen.
II. Some papers are pens.

1. (i) All pens are papers → Universal Affirmative (A-type).
(ii) Some houses are lakes → Particular Affirmative (I-type).
(iii) No eraser is paper → Universal Negative (E-type).
(iv) Some erasers are not papers → Particular Negative (O-type).
All pens are papers. ↔ No paper is an eraser.

##### Correct Option: A

(i) All pens are papers → Universal Affirmative (A-type).
(ii) Some houses are lakes → Particular Affirmative (I-type).
(iii) No eraser is paper → Universal Negative (E-type).
(iv) Some erasers are not papers → Particular Negative (O-type).
All pens are papers. ↔ No paper is an eraser.
A + E ⇒ E-type of Conclusion. “No pen is an eraser”.
Conclusion I is Converse of it.
Conclusion II is Converse of the first Premise.

Direction: Two statements are given followed by two conclusions (I) and (II). You have to consider the statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You are to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follow from the given statements.

1. Statements:
All fruits are sweet.
All sweet things are not good for health.
Conclusions:
(I) All fruits are not good for health.
(II) Some fruits are not good for health.

1. First Premise is Universal Affirmative (A&type).
Second Premise can be written in the form of Universal Negative (E-type) as
No sweet thing is good for health
All fruits are sweet. ↔ No sweet thing is good for health.

##### Correct Option: D

First Premise is Universal Affirmative (A&type).
Second Premise can be written in the form of Universal Negative (E-type) as
No sweet thing is good for health
All fruits are sweet. ↔ No sweet thing is good for health.
A + E ⇒ E–type of Conclusion “No fruit is good for health”.
Thus both the Conclusions follow.

Direction: Two statements are given followed by two inferences I and II. You have to consider the statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You are to decide which of the given inferences can definitely be drawn from the given statements.

1. Statements:
(a) All cupboards are watches.
(b) All watches are costly.
Inferences:
I. All cupboards are costly.
II. Some costly things are cupboards.

1. Both the Premises are Universal Affirmative (A-type).
All cupboards are watches. ↔ All watches are costly.

##### Correct Option: C

Both the Premises are Universal Affirmative (A-type).
All cupboards are watches. ↔ All watches are costly.
A + A → A-type of Conclusion “All cupboards are costly.”
This is Conclusion I.
Conclusion II is converse of it.

Direction: Two statements are given followed by two conclusions I and II. You have to consider the two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follow from the given statements.

1. Statements:
(a) All English movies are violent.
(b) Some people like watching English movies.
Conclusions:
I. All people watching English movies like violence.
II. All people who like violence watch English movies.

1. Only Conclusion I follows. As all English movies are violent, the people who like watching English movies like violence.

##### Correct Option: A

Only Conclusion I follows. As all English movies are violent, the people who like watching English movies like violence. But it is not necessary that all people who like violence watch English movies.