Microbiology Miscellaneous


Microbiology Miscellaneous

  1. Which of the following eukaryotic organisms has been proven to be of great industrial importance ? ​​
    1. Penicillium chrysogenum ​​
    2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    3. Bacillus subtilis ​​
    4. Streptomyces griseus

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    Its complex genome and advanced splicing machinery makes it as a choice of industrial exploitation. Its been used for wine making, baking and brewing since ancient times. It is believed that it was originally isolated from the skin of grapes (one can see the yeast as a component of the thin white film on the skins of some dark-colored fruits such as plums; it exists among the waxes of the cuticle). It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology, much like Escherichia coli as the model bacterium. It is the microorganism behind the most common type of fermentation.

    Correct Option: B

    Its complex genome and advanced splicing machinery makes it as a choice of industrial exploitation. Its been used for wine making, baking and brewing since ancient times. It is believed that it was originally isolated from the skin of grapes (one can see the yeast as a component of the thin white film on the skins of some dark-colored fruits such as plums; it exists among the waxes of the cuticle). It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology, much like Escherichia coli as the model bacterium. It is the microorganism behind the most common type of fermentation.


  1. Microbes bring about biological transformation of xenobiotic compounds by
    1. degradation ​​
    2. conjugation ​​
    3. ​ detoxification
    4. all of these

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    microbes use replication procedure for xenobiotic compound transformation. A xenobiotic is a chemical which is found in an organism but which is not normally produced or expected to be present in it. It can also cover substances which are present in much higher concentrations than are usual. Specifically, drugs such as antibiotics are xenobiotics in humans because the human body does not produce them itself, nor are they part of a normal diet. However, the term xenobiotics is very often used in the context of pollutants such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls and their effect on the biota, because xenobiotics are understood as substances foreign to an entire biological system, i.e. artificial substances, which did not exist in nature before their synthesis by humans. ​

    Correct Option: D

    microbes use replication procedure for xenobiotic compound transformation. A xenobiotic is a chemical which is found in an organism but which is not normally produced or expected to be present in it. It can also cover substances which are present in much higher concentrations than are usual. Specifically, drugs such as antibiotics are xenobiotics in humans because the human body does not produce them itself, nor are they part of a normal diet. However, the term xenobiotics is very often used in the context of pollutants such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls and their effect on the biota, because xenobiotics are understood as substances foreign to an entire biological system, i.e. artificial substances, which did not exist in nature before their synthesis by humans. ​



  1. A bioremedial solution to reduce oxides of nitrogen and carbon in flue gases is to integrate flue gas emission to ​​
    1. micro-algal culture
    2. fish culture ​​
    3. mushroom culture ​​
    4. sericulture

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    The advantages of using a microalgal-based system in integration with flue gas emission are that :
    ⚈ High purity CO2 gas is not required for algal culture. Flue gas containing varying amounts of CO2 can be fed directly to the microalgal culture. This will simplify CO2 separation from flue gas significantly. ​​
    ⚈ ​Some combustion products such as NOx or SOx can be effectively used as nutrients for microalgae. This could simplify flue gas scrubbing for the combustion system. ​​
    ⚈ ​Microalgae culturing may yield high value commercial products. Sale of these high value products can offset the capital and the operation costs of the process. ​​
    ⚈ ​The envisioned process is a renewable cycle with minimal negative impacts on environment.

    Correct Option: A

    The advantages of using a microalgal-based system in integration with flue gas emission are that :
    ⚈ High purity CO2 gas is not required for algal culture. Flue gas containing varying amounts of CO2 can be fed directly to the microalgal culture. This will simplify CO2 separation from flue gas significantly. ​​
    ⚈ ​Some combustion products such as NOx or SOx can be effectively used as nutrients for microalgae. This could simplify flue gas scrubbing for the combustion system. ​​
    ⚈ ​Microalgae culturing may yield high value commercial products. Sale of these high value products can offset the capital and the operation costs of the process. ​​
    ⚈ ​The envisioned process is a renewable cycle with minimal negative impacts on environment.


  1. Match the products in group 1 with their producer organisms given in group 2 ​​
    Group 1​ ​​
    P. ​Ethanol ​​
    Q.​ L-Lysine ​​
    R.​ Biopesticide ​​
    S.​ Vancomycin ​​
    Group 2
    ​​1.​ Streptomyces orientalis ​​
    2.​ Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    ​​3.​ Corynebacterium glutamicum ​​
    4. ​Bacillus thuringiensis
    1. P-2, Q-3, R-4, S-1
    2. P-3, Q-4, R-1, S-2
    3. P-4, Q-1, R-2, S-3
    4. P-2, Q-1, R-4, S-3

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    P>2 :​ Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used extensively in batch fermentations to convert sugars to ethanol for the production of beverages and biofuels. ​​
    Q>3 :​ Industrially, L-lysine is usually manufa-ctured by a fermentation process using Corynebacterium glutamicum ​​
    R>4 : Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide. ​​
    S>1 : Streptomyces orientalis produces the antibiotic Vancomycin, which is used for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, especially staphylococci. ​

    Correct Option: A

    P>2 :​ Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used extensively in batch fermentations to convert sugars to ethanol for the production of beverages and biofuels. ​​
    Q>3 :​ Industrially, L-lysine is usually manufa-ctured by a fermentation process using Corynebacterium glutamicum ​​
    R>4 : Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide. ​​
    S>1 : Streptomyces orientalis produces the antibiotic Vancomycin, which is used for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, especially staphylococci. ​



  1. Match the products in Group 1 with their producer organisms in Group 2 : ​​​
    Group 1 Group 2
    P.​Ethanol from glucose​ 1.​ Aspergillus niger
    Q.​ Probiotics​ 2. ​Leuconostoc ​​​mesenteroides
    R. ​Citric acid​ 3.​ Saccharomyces ​​cerevisiae
    ​​S.​ Sauerkraut​ 4.​ Bifidobacterium ​​

    1. P-1, Q-3, R-2, S-4
    2. P-3, Q-4, R-1, S-2 ​​
    3. P-3, Q-4, R-2, S-1 ​​
    4. P-1, Q-4, R-3, S-2

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    P>3 : ​Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used extensively in batch fermentations to convert sugars to ethanol for the production of beverages and biofuels. ​​
    Q>4 :​ Probiotics are live microorganisms thought to be beneficial to the host organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria are the most common types of microbes used as probiotics. ​​
    R>1 : ​In production technique of citric acid, cultures of A. niger are fed on a sucrose or glucose containing medium to produce citric acid. ​​
    S>2 :​ Sauerkraut (sour cabbage) is finely shredded cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus etc.

    Correct Option: B

    P>3 : ​Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used extensively in batch fermentations to convert sugars to ethanol for the production of beverages and biofuels. ​​
    Q>4 :​ Probiotics are live microorganisms thought to be beneficial to the host organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria are the most common types of microbes used as probiotics. ​​
    R>1 : ​In production technique of citric acid, cultures of A. niger are fed on a sucrose or glucose containing medium to produce citric acid. ​​
    S>2 :​ Sauerkraut (sour cabbage) is finely shredded cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus etc.