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  1. If Rajesh studies, he will pass his exam. Rajesh fails the exam. Which one of the following can be concluded from the above statements?
    1. Rajesh studied for the exam
    2. Rajesh did not study for the exam
    3. Rajesh may or may not have studied for the exam (No definite conclusion)
    4. None of these
Correct Option: B

Let X the event that Rajesh studies for the exam. and Y the event that Rajesh passes the exam. We have been given the information that X → Y.
Thus ~ Y ~X. means if Ram failed the exam, he did not study for it.

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