(i) Another positive aspect is that almost 90 per cent of Tamil Nadu's 60 million people are literate, compared to just half of Biharis.
(ii) As a result, there was much greater emphasis on educating the masses as the most obvious way of raising their social status.
(iii) Furthermore, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh are deep in India's landlocked interior, while Tamil Nadu is a coastal state, so it was always more open to foreign influences.
(iv) Other reason could be that Tamil Nadu, like neigh-bouring Kerala, had far more experience than the north of Christian missionary activity in the 18th and 19th century, which meant there were many more opportunities for the lower castes to attend schools.
(v) This owes something to the fact lower caste agitation began in Tamil Nadu long before India became a democracy, which meant lower castes leaders had to focus on other arenas to empower their followers.